GRE文章结构类型的阅读

2018-06-27 14:04

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为了帮助大家高效备考GRE,小新为大家带来GRE阅读文章结构类型的解析,希望对大家GRE备考有所帮助。


现象解释型


这类GRE阅读题型顾名思义是对某种自然或社会现象进行分析解释。这类文章在一开始就会描述一种“奇怪”的现象,说它奇怪是因为这种现象发生的频率比较低或者在日常生活中不容易见到,又或者是容易被我们忽略的一些现象。


文章的展开也是围绕这一现象进行,首先是对这一现象的描述,然后介绍其产生的原因及所造成的影响,从而间接地表达作者的态度或评价。


小新说:对于这类文章,考生不仅要对描述的现象有所了解,知道其具体在讲什么,更重的是对该现象的成因解释要理解透彻,明确产生这种现象的真正原因才能在作答时快速准确的从文中找到依据。建议大家在平时的练习中养成剖析文章结构的习惯,这样不仅可以大大提高做题的效率,还能举一反三,考生只要稍作归纳,就可以迅速解题,做到事半功倍。


观点比较型


观点对比型的GRE阅读通常会在文章一开始就提出两个或两个以上的观点,并在下文中呈现出对比分析的特点。通过对两个或多个观点的分析比较,间接表现出作者的态度和评价,从而判断文章的主旨和基调。在做题过程中要注意观察作者的态度或评价,因为此类型的文章中通常会有关于作者态度的题目。


小新说:这类文章主要是考察考生对文章整体的把握程度,对文章结构和内容的分析能力,以及对作者态度评价及逻辑的判断。文章通常围绕新观点展开,明白这一点,就要在平时的练习中多家注意,并养成好的做题习惯,这样才能在考试的时候临危不乱,取得满意的成绩。


结论说明型


此类型的文章通常会在文章开头给出一个明确的结论,然后在下文中围绕这一结论进行详细论述,通过摆事实和分析论据的方式来证明结论的正确性或可行性。文章的展开通常会以“总-分”的形式来呈现。


小新说:这类文章一般在首句都会出现一个主题句,即topic sentence,接着下文围绕这一话题展开讨论,并且在讨论的过程中不断抛出论据来证明该结论的正确性。通过对论据的分析考生可以准确判断作者的态度,对接下来的题目练习做好铺垫。考生在平时练习的时候一定要养成分析文章套路的习惯,“养兵千日用兵一时”对提升考生的准确率是非常有效的。


对比分析型


此类型的文章通常会在文章开头给出两个或两个以上关于新观点的主题句,然后在下文中围绕这一观点进行详细论述和对比分析,并且在对比中会着重凸显作者的态度和观点。下面给大家举例说明一下。


小新说:同样,此类文章在结构上也会呈现出总-分-总结构,第一段抛出观点之后在接下来的段落中进行针对性的分析,最后一段通常是对比分析后得出的结论汇总。所以在平时做GRE阅读的时候一定要养成分析文章套路的习惯,这样在做题的时候就能做到心中有数,下笔有神。


自问自答型


问题解答类的文章通常会以问句的形式开始,第一段会提出一个问题或者呈现一个难题,而问题通常是“设问”句。常见的标志词如:problem,difficulty, task, puzzle, challenge, question等词。紧接着会对这一问题进行解答或作出解释,文章围绕这些问题展开讨论分析,并把作者的观点态度贯穿其中。主要考察考生对文章问题的理解以及对所给答案的分析和判断,要求考生有明确的思路和方向。


小新说:该类文章的大体结构基本可以总结为“提问-解答-表明立场”,考生在读文章的时候一定要把握好文章的基调和作者的评价,善于分析并把握文章的重点,判断作者最想表达的内容。为接下来的作答做好准备。首先,正如上文介绍的,文章一开始就要找出作者提出的文章要讨论的问题。接着,作者会对此给出解答这个问题的重要信息考生对这些信息要进行明确的标注,方便最后的题目解答。最后根据作者对问题作出的回答判断作者的观点和立场,把握文章的主要内容。


GRE阅读真题练习


In The Women of Mexico City, 1796-1857, Sylvia Marina Arrom argues that the status on women in Mexico City improved during the nineteenth century. According to Arrom, households headed by females and instances of women working outside the home were much more common than scholars have estimated; efforts by the Mexican government to encourage female education resulted in increased female literacy; and influential male writers wrote pieces advocating education, employment, and increased family responsibilities for women, while deploring women's political and marital inequality. Mention of the fact that the civil codes of 1870 and 1884 significantly advanced women's rights would have further strengthened Arrom's argument.

Arrom does not discuss whether women's improved status counteracted the effects on women of instability in the Mexican economy during the nineteenth century. However, this is not so much a weakness in her work as it is the inevitable result of scholars' neglect of this period Indeed, such gaps in Mexican history are precisely what make Arrom's pioneering study an important addition to Latin American women's history.


练习题:

(1)The passage is primarily concerned with doing which of the following?


A.Reviewing a historical study of the status of women in Mexico City during the nineteenth century.

B.Analyzing the effects of economic instability on the status of women in Mexico during the nineteenth century

C.Advancing a thesis explaining why women's status in Mexico City improved during the nineteenth century

D.Rejecting the thesis that the status of women in Mexico City during the nineteenth century actually improved

E.Praising an author for a pioneering attempt to bridge significant gaps in Mexico's economic history prior to 1790


(2)It can be inferred from the passage that Arrom would agree with which of the following assertions?


A.Efforts by the Mexican government to encourage education for women during the nineteenth century were hampered by the economic instability of that period.

B.The most significant advances in the rights of Mexican women during the nineteenth century occurred prior to 1857.

C.Improvements in the status of women in Mexico City during the nineteenth century were accompanied by similar improvements in the status of women in other large Latin American cities.

D.Scholars have in the past accorded the most significance to nineteenth-century Mexican literature that supported the status quo in women's political and marital rights.

E.Scholars have in the past underestimated the number of households headed by females in Mexico City


(3)Which of the following best describes the author's attitude toward Arrom's work?


A.Uncritical approval

B.Enthusiasm tempered by minor reservations

C.Praise for her thesis, despite skepticism regarding the sources of her evidence

D.Reluctant acceptance, despite lingering doubts regarding the accuracy of her thesis

E.Rejection, despite admiration for her attempt to break new ground in a hitherto neglected field


练习题答案:(1)A (2)E (3)B


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