托福写作中,那些你没想到的高分常用论证方法

2018-05-21 17:58

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当前所在位置:广州新东方学校>>>出国留学>>>北美>>>托福(TOEFL)

作为写作老师,最常听到学生抱怨什么呢?“老师,我展不开论点,无话可说啊!”


在一个主体段的point(论点),illustration(论证) 和example(举例)中,最让学生头疼的就是中间的illustration(论证)部分啦 !!

讲道理讲不清楚,逻辑紊乱,或者根本就大脑空白无从下手,都是托福考生的通病!那么今天就来教大家一招很灵的解药—反面论证!


在日常生活中,我们会见到这样的反面论证:

女朋友:“你说说,为什么我对你来说很重要啊~”

男朋友:“ 额……因为……如果没有你的话,我就活不下去啊!”


在这个案例中,男主角因为没有办法说出正面的理由, 所以直接来了个反面论证,虽然有点牵强,但是仍然忽悠过去了。这就是反面论证的巧妙之处:

Computer games can improve children’s responsive ability.Because games require players to make decisions quickly andtake actions immediately. For example, I liked Tetris very muchwhen I was young. In the game, I had to look for empty spaceacross the screen and quickly found the right gap to place newblocks. So, I needed to be very fast. Gradually, I became fast not only in games but also in calculating and writing. 


这个段落总共74个单词。

我们知道,如果每个主体段都在70个单词左右,三个主体段*70词=210词,加上首段and尾段60词,肯定是无法写够独立写作最低字数要求300词的。

 

那么我们把这位同学的illustration单独抽出来看看,就这么一句话:


“Because games require players to make decisions quickly and take actions immediately.“


“因为游戏要求玩家快速做出决定并且马上采取行动。”


然后就没了……


是不是有种熟悉的感觉!苍白,无力,虚弱……

 

没关系,我们来对这个一句话的

illustration尝试使用反面论证的手法!


原:因为游戏要求玩家快速做出决定并且马上采取行动。

反面论证:如果玩家不对任务做出快速反应的话,他们可能会在一秒之内输掉游戏。因此,电脑游戏确实锻炼了孩子的大脑。

If players could not response to the task rapidly, they could lose the game within one second. Therefore, computer games do give children’s brain a workout.  


把这句话加入原文中,我们会得到这样的一个段落:

Computer games can improve children’s responsive ability.Because games require players to make decisions quickly andtake actions immediately. If players could not respond  to the task rapidly, they could lose the game within one second. Therefore, computer games do give children’s brain a workout. For example, I liked Tetris very much when I was young. In the game, I had to look for empty space across the screen and quickly found the right gap to place new blocks. So, I needed to be very fast. Gradually, I became fast not only in games but also in calculating and writing. 


这样,段落立刻从74个单词变成了99个单词!!

假设每个主体段都能有100个单词左右,三个主体段*100词=300词,已经基本达到独立写作最低300词的要求,加上开头段和结尾段,肯定能在考场写出满足字数要求的文章哦!!这样逻辑简单的论证手法,是不是超级好用呢!!


再来看看何老师的其他学生在作文论证中应用反面论证的例子吧:


例1:

Point: Regular exercise can improve student’s learning efficiency.Illustration: Because doing sports can help students to relax and refresh, they can focus on study more efficiently after exercising. If students could not get adequate exercise, they are very likely to burn out and are more prone to diseases. Therefore, it is highly necessary for students to build up their bodies for the sake of a better academic performance.

 

例2:

Point: Part-time experiences enhance children’s social ability.Illustration: In workplace, teenagers will meet new people and must learn to get along with them. In this process, children develop stronger communicative skills and social ability.If children are confined to school environment, they may lack the ability to deal with different people when they enter society. Therefore, doing part-time jobs plays an important role in children’s social development.

 

好哒,这种简单又行之有效的反面论证大家学会了吗?当然,上面展示的只是使用虚拟语气的反面论证,还有其他可以用在反面论证的句式和表达,比如:


1、without

例:Without proper training, employees may work with   low efficiency and poor proficiency and thus bring loss to the company.


2、suppose/imagine/supposing (that)

例:Supposing that Mr. Zhang had taken a job which was very easy to lose, once lost, he would have failed to give stable and constant financial support to the whole family and his family would have got into trouble.


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